Počítadlo návštev

Slovak Great Men

Juro1 Fándly – prominent representative of Bernolak movement, one of the founders of Slovenské učené tovarišstvo, clergyman, writer, poet, historian, farmer, bee-keeper, politician, promoter and propagator of the first codified Slovak language
Jur2 Palkovič – one of the first great scientific personalities of modern Slovak history, significant patron and publisher of Slovak literature, translator, translator and publisher of the first Slovak Bible translation
Štefan Zloch – missionary in China and Japan
Vincent Lechovič – missionary on the Indonesian island of Timor. A writer, a translator and a publisher of books in Indonesian and indigenous Timor language.

 

Juro3 Fándly (21st October 1750 – 7th March 1811)

Juro Fándly was born on 21st October 1750 in Častá. His parents Ján Fandl and Marína née Mikovičová came from Doľany, where their first child, Marína, was born. Quite probably they lived in Častá, because their second child, Tereza, was born there on 12th March 1748, as well as their third child Juro. They returned to Doľany, it might have been around 1755,4 where their fourth child, Magdaléna5, was born in 1764.
Juro studied in several monastic schools – in years 1766/67 in Piarist Grammar School in Svätý Jur, in years 1767/68 he studied at Franciscans in Mária Hát, later on at Capuchins. During 1773-1777 he studied theology in Szécsényi seminary in Buda and in Trnava seminary.
In 1777 he was ordained a priest. At the beginning he was a chaplain in Sereď for 3 years, later on at Lukáčovce (near Hlohovec) for 3 months and he finally became a parish priest in Naháč, where he stayed and worked from 1780 until his early retirement in 1807. Last 4 years of his life was spent in a paternal house in Doľany. He died here on 7th March 1811.
During his stay in Naháč he actively worked also in national-revival movement of Slovaks, not just as a founding member and a significant official of Slovenské učené tovarišstvo, but also as perhaps the most significant Slovak writer of his period. His first work was Dúverná zmluva mezi mňíchom a diablom published in 1789. This is even the first Slovak piece of art written in codified Slovak language, so called bernolákovština. In the following years his other works were published, mainly from the field of educating peasants (Piľní domajší a poľní hospodár in four volumes, O uhoroch aj včelách, Slovenskí včelár etc.), history (Compendiata Historia Gentis Slavae – Short history of Slovak Nation) and religion (Príhodné a svátečné kázňe in two volumes, Každodenné rozjímaní o smrti etc.). Many of his works were not published, they remained as handwritings. Detailed summary of his works follows.6

List of published books:
- Dúverná zmlúva mezi mňíchom a diáblom o prvních počátkoch, o starodávních, aj o včulájších premenách reholňíckích. Consists of first and second parts. Range 448 pages, Bratislava 1789
- Odporné smluvání mezy rozumným mnichem, a sprostým ďáblem o mnichoch a reholníkoch složené. Range 26 pages, Trnava 1789
- Anti-Fándly aneb dúverné zmlúváni mezi Theodulusem treťího franciškánuv rádu bosákem, a Jurem Fándly naháckim farárem o, a proťi jeho Dúvernéj zmlúve mezi mníchem, a ďáblem. Range 62 pages, Trnava 1789
- Každodenné rozjímaní o smrti. 1792
- Piľní domajší a poľní hospodár. Trnava 1792
- Druhá stránka v kteréj po smrťi prvňého, druhí piľní hospodár vikládá ...
- Compendiata Historia Gentis Slavae (Short History of Slovak Nation). This work is an abstract of De regno regibusque Slavorum (Historia gentis Slavae) written by Papánek, which was published in 1781. Trnava 1793
- Zeľinkár. Piece of work for which he wrote only introduction and preface, its content was taken from the work of Ján Tonsoris Sana consilia medica, aneb Zdravá radda lékařská (1771). 1793
- Príhodné a svátečné kázňe. 1795
- Príhodné a svátečné kázňe, II. zvazek. 1795
- Pobožné pesňički k ženskim prádkam, též ke chlapskim večernejšim schádskam prichistané. 1798
- Treťá stránka pilného domajšého a polného hospodára o planetách. Trnava 1800
- Štvrtá stránka o opaternosťi mladéj aj staréj rožnéj lichvi
- O uhoroch aj včelách. Trnava 1802
- Slovenskí včelár. Trnava 1802
- Každodenná památka smrti a pobožná modlitba za obdržáni sčastlivej smrti. 1805
- O nemocách aj o viléčeňu nezdravej rožnej lichvi. 1829
- Prátelské porozumení. Inaccurate edition in Literárne listy 5, 1895, p. 44-47, new edition under the title Priateľské porozumenie, Spolok sv. Vojtecha v Trnave 1990
- Gaudium et Exultatio Exhibita post installationem A. R. Domini Josephi Thurzo Parochi Szomolyanensis... . 1930
- Gemitus et Lamentation (Sigh and Lament). 1930
- Katechizmus spovede a prijímania. The year of publishing is missing.
- Krátke vysvetlenie Desatora Božích prikázaní. The year of publishing is missing.
- Dissertatio Historica de Oppido Ottenthál, et de eius Memorabilibus (Historical Essay about the Town Doľany and Its Places of Interest). Handwriting from 1810, in book published as a translation under the title Historická rozprava o Doľanoch, Múzeum Ľudovíta Štúra v Modre 1990

Works that are in handwriting only:
- Treťá stránka dúvernéj zmlúvi od naháckého farára spísaná — O bohactvú zrušeních klášteroch
- Štvrtá stránka dúvernéj zmlúvi od náháckého farára spísaná — Knazskí advokát
- Pátá stránka o opaternosťi mladích aj starích konov
- Šestá stránka o opaternosťi mladích aj starích ovec
- Sedmá stránka o opaternosťi mladích aj starích svín
- Osmá stránka o opaternosťi všeľijakého mladého aj starého krídelného hidu
- Historia Excellentissimae Familiae Palffyanae in tribus Sectionibus
- Defensio Germanorum in Hungaria habitantium (Defence of Germans Living in Hungaria)
- Hungaria olim (ut moderno tempore) omni Seculo Bello pressa (Hungaria in the Past (as well as these days) for Centuries Tried by Wars)
- Visitatio Battyaniana ...
- Denník o zrušení susedného kláštora sv. Kataríny ...

 

Jur7 Palkovič (24th April 1763 – 21st January 1835)

            Jur Palkovič was born on 24th April 1763 in Veľké Chlievany. Similarly as in it was in case of Juro Fándly, also parents of Juraj Palkovič, father Ján Palkovič and mother Katarína, née Purmanová came from Doľany, but in years 1761-1774 they lived at Katarína´s brother, parish priest Gregor Purman in a parsonage in Veľké Chlievany. Seven of their eight children were born there, among them also Jur. It was probably after death of Gregor Purman in 1774, that the family moved back to Doľany.
Jur studied in Piarist Grammar School in Svätý Jur (in years 1775-1779), later on in Trnava, then he studied theology in Vienna (1783-1784) and Bratislava (1784-1788).
After he was ordained a priest in 1788 he was a chaplain in Štiavnické Bane (1789-1794) and Pezinok (1794-1795). Aftewards he was a studies prefect of General Seminary in Bratislava (1796-1800). In years 1800-1820 he taught ethics and ecclesiastical law in seminary in Trnava. From 1820, after moving chapter to Esztergom, he worked in this place until his death. During his life he held high religious positions, in 1816 he became Esztergom canon, in 1821 archdeacon in Komárno, and in 1825 provost. He died in Esztergom on 21st January 1835.
Jur Palkovič was a leading supporter of Bernolák Slovak language and as a generous patron supported many Slovak writers. He also supported a significant Slovak poet Ján Hollý, when on his own expenses published his translations Rozľičné básňe (1824) and Aeneida (1828), later on also his works Svatopluk (1833) and Cirillo-Metodiada (1835). With the help of Esztergom archbishop Alexander Rudnay in years 1825 - 1827, that is twelve years after death of Anton Bernolák, he published his Slovár Slovenskí in five volumes, Češko-Laťinsko-Ňemecko-Uherskí which he edited. He also financially participated in publishing other works as Valaská škola mravúv stodola by Hugolín Gavlovič (1830-1831), Kázne príhodné by M. Reteška (1831) and also Kázne príhodné by Alexander Rudnay (1833).
Palkovič himself was an active translator. From German he translated a collection of six biblical dramas by Peter Metastasia, which were published under the title Duchovné divadlo (1801), from Latin it was a play by Cornelia Schonaea Daniel (1813) and from Greek Plato´s dialogue Alkibiades (1813). The greatest achievement of his life was the translation of the Bible to Bernolak Slovak language. This great work – Svaté Písmo starého i nového Zákona – after many years of work he published in two volumes on his own expenses. That was in 1829 and 1832. It is the first in book published translation of the Bible in Slovak language! Greatness of this act we realise when we think of the next full Bible translation – in new Štúr Slovak language, for which we had to wait for another almost 100 years until the year 1926.

 

Štefan Zloch (12th September 1910 – 9th November 1992)
Štefan Zloch was born on 12th September 1910 in Doľany. His father was Pavol Zloch and his mother was Emília, née Krchnáková.
In years 1924 - 1927 he studied in Grammar School in Sládečkovce, later on in 1927 - 1932 in Grammar School in Nitra. In 1932 – 1939 he continued his studies in theology institute in Mödling near Vienna. Between the years in 1938 he was ordained a priest.
After his studies, immediately in 1939 he went to China as a missionary.  He worked in Shantung Mountains and afterwards in Anhua. In 1947 – 1951 he was an associate professor at the Catholic University in Peking. After the communist victory in China, the situation in China radically changed to worse. Persecutions began. In 1951 padre Zloch was imprisoned and tortured. In comparison to ordinary Chinese his situation ended up relatively well. After over a year imprisonment together with other non-Chinese Christians he was expelled from the country. Due to his imprisonment and turtures weakend health he underwent a treatment in Germany and England in 1952 and 1953. Afterwards he left for the mission in Japan, where he worked in 1953 – 1958.
Considering his knowledge of Asian culture and languages, his superiors charged him with a new task in 1958 – to establish missionary institute for Afro and Asian students in Vienna. Zloch therefore left Japan and returned to Europe. After approximately one-year work on 15th November 1959 he managed to open Afro-Asian institute, which he was in charge of as a director. He worked here until 1962, when he was appointed to the position of a director of St. Peter and Paul Council in Munchen, which served to African and Asian students at first, and from 1976 to Eastern European students. In this position he worked probably until his retirement. He died in charity house for pastors in Beckov on 9th September 1992.
Padre Zloch was a sociable person, he liked to talk about his experiences, he often wrote to his family, friends and fellow-brothers. His experiences were collected by his fellow-brother Ondrej Slavkovský in 1976 in a catching book describing rich and interesting life of Štefan Zloch. The book was published in 1993 under the title FU ŠEN FU z Ompitála.

 

Vincent Lechovič (14th June 1922 – 24th October 1995)
Vincent Lechovič was born on 14th June 1922 in Doľany to his father Jozef Lechovič and his mother Júlia, née Slaninková as the youngest of six children.
For two years he studied in Grammar School in Spišský Štiavnik (1935-1937), next two years in Grammar School in Nitra (1937-1939), afterwards two years in Spišský Štiavnik again (1939-1941) and finally he finished his Grammar School in Nitra (1941-1943). He continued his studies of philosophy in Nitra (1943-1945) and theology in Ružomberok (study year 1945/46).8 Because of deficiency of professors he left for Rome in 1946. In 1949 was was ordained a priest in Rome.
Immediatelly in the following year in 1950 he left as a missionary to Indonesian island Flores, where he worked until 1979. At that year during his holiday in Europe he suffered the stroke and this left him paralysed on the left side of the body. Unfortunatelly, this was the end of his missionary activities. The rest of his life was spent in a missionary home in St. Gabriel in Mödling in Austria. He died there on 24th October 1995.
During his missionary work he significantly participated in development of Timor literature and music. Detailed overview of works published in Timor is stated in the following list. In available sources the dates of publishing, circulation and other information are missing.
- Oe mat neno (Prameň Boží). Prayer book in indigenous language published in 1954 in circulation 2500 pieces, second revised edition in circulation 10000 pieces published in 1968
- Tsi tanaeb Uis Neno (Chváľme spevom Pána Boha). Hymnbook in indigenous Davanese language containing 125 songs, first edition published in 1957, revised edition published in 1962 in circulation of 10000 pieces
- Biblické dejiny spásy. Translation of the Old and New Testament parts into indigenous Davanese language.  Published in 1966 in circulation of 6000 pieces.
- Nyanyian untuk Kurban Misa (Piesne k sv. omši). Missal songs probably in Indonesian language. First edition in 1967, second in 1968
- Wktu Jesus nasih muda (Keď bol Ježiš ešte mladíkom). Drama translated from German, published in Indonesian language sometimes in 1966-1968
- drama about the life of St. Tarzicius. Published in Indonesian language sometimes in 1966-1968
- Katechizmus. Published probably in 1968.
- Empat misa ritmika (Štyri rytmické omše). Hymnbook published in 1973
- Dejiny farnosti Soe. Published in 1978
It seems that Vincent Lechovič published all these books on his own expenses or possibly from donations of different benefactors.
His last book is Spomienky na Timor (1992), in which he describes his rich and interesting life from childhood until 1955.

 Sources:
Ján Dubovský, Petra Pospechová, Juraj Turcsány: Doľany.Bratislava 2002, ISBN 978- 80-968808-2-9
Anton Adamkovič: Doľany pri Častej. Monografia. Oto Németh 2001, ISBN 80-88949-32-7
Juraj Fándly: O úhoroch aj včelách. Slovenský včelár.Príroda, Bratislava 1990, ISBN 80-07-00169-7
Juraj Fándly: Historická rozprava o Doľanoch.Múzeum Ľudovíta Štúra v Modre, 1990
Juraj Fándly: Priateľské porozumenie.Spolok sv. Vojtecha v Trnave 1990
Juraj Dolinský SJ: Juraj Palkovič, prekladateľ Svätého písma. Článok z ročenky Studia Aloisiana 2002, Bratislava 2002
Vincent Lechovič SVD: Spomienky na Timor.Spoločnosť Božieho Slova 1992, ISBN 80-85683-00-8
Štefan Zloch SVD: FU ŠEN FU z Ompitála.Spoločnosť Božieho Slova, Nitra 1993, ISBN 80-85223-24-4
Web pages: http://zlatyfond.sme.sk/autor/84/Juraj-Fandly
http://leccos.com/index.php/clanky/palkovic-,jur
http://www.juls.savba.sk/ediela/bernolak/


1 In all period documents known to the author of this report, J. Fándly used or signed as Juro (or Latinized name Georgius), but not as Juraj. Therefore the author of this report preserved his real name  

2 According to information in the book by Ján Dubovský, Petra Pospechová, Juraj Turcsány: Doľany, p. 203, J. Palkovič used and signed his literature as Jur. Therefore the author of this report preserved his real name

3 In all period documents known to the author of this report, J. Fándly used or signed as Juro (or Latinized name Georgius), but not as Juraj. Therefore the author of this report preserved his real name

4 Information from the book Ján Dubovský, Petra Pospechová, Juraj Turcsány: Doľany, p. 197

5 Information from the book Ján Dubovský, Petra Pospechová, Juraj Turcsány: Doľany, p. 197

6 The list is not ideal. Each of the sources states different works, often with a slightly altered title, (e.g. substitution of words poľní/polňí, etc.).

7 According to information in the book by Ján Dubovský, Petra Pospechová, Juraj Turcsány: Doľany, p. 203 J. Palkovič used and signed his literature as Jur. Therefore the author of this report preserved his real name

8 Contradictory and incomplete information about the studies of p. Lechovič are stated in his book Spomienky na Timor, p. 8-9, 21 and 159, as well as in the book by Anton Adamkovič Doľany pri Častej. Monografia, p. 244-245. The author of this report tried to retrace studies of p. Lechovič mainly based on the second title.